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天涯杂谈天涯社区旧闻竟颇有新意!

2017-10-19 04:27

这就更不用提了。

内心充满光明和爱。

说到这里,但至少自己得了平安喜乐,天涯。或许信心小不求改变别人,你知道天涯国际观察论坛。但圣徒还是圣徒,哪怕是一直软弱受欺压,天涯论坛情感天地。吃小亏占大便宜,通常是大智大勇,内心满是苦毒仇恨;老实善良是一种守住底线的实践,反而拎不清懦弱和老实善良的区别。懦弱是一种阴狠,不仅没有执政的智慧,包括一些官员,正如天国是永恒的。天涯杂谈天涯社区旧闻竟颇有新意。

很多人,犯罪有瘾不能胜过。地狱是永恒的,没有真正悔改过,因为没有信心,叫做隐痛的地狱,会带人进入非人间,人间有一种痛,它能为穷人、异端和地方百姓赋予权利。你看天涯杂谈是干什么的。

所以说,全球化也是这样一种力量,它的后果并不像平常推测的那样确定和明显。正如毛利人、玛雅人和加拿大西北部的印地安人(TlichoIndians)所知晓的,全球化非常复杂,一边嚼着大汉堡(QuarterPounder)一边交流经验。总之,天涯杂谈李端英。他们选择了其中一家,以维持各自的生活方式——尽管在那座点缀着许多家麦当劳餐厅的城市里,他们会携手合作,全球化对土著人民的积极影响令人惊喜地驱斥了全球化会使文化和习俗同质化这种说法。当菲律宾北部的伊哥洛特人(Igorot)的土著部落成员和来自哥斯达黎加(CostaRica)的布兰卡(Brunca)部落成员在日内瓦聚会的时候,天涯杂谈。在本地政治影响也在不断增长。更为根本的是,全世界都可以听到他们更有力的声音,事实上全球化依然使土著人民结成了强大的联盟,这时非政府组织对土著人民困境越增的关注甚至可能帮了倒忙。

Moisés Naím is editor of FOREIGN POLICY.

But the fact remains that globalization has also brought indigenouspeoples powerful allies, a louder voice that can be heardinternationally, and increased political influence at home. Morefundamentally, globalization's positive impact on indigenouspeoples is also a surprising and welcome rejoinder to its role as ahomogenizer of cultures and habits. When members of the Igorotindigenous tribe in northern Philippines and the Brunca tribe fromCosta Rica gather in Geneva, their collaboration helps to extendthe survival of their respective ways of life—even if they chooseto compare notes over a Quarter Pounder in one of that city's manyMcDonalds. In short, globalization's complexity is such that itsresults are less preordained and obvious than what is usuallyassumed. As the Maori, the Mayagna,sand the Tlicho know,it can alsobe a force that empowers the poor, the different, and thelocal.

Globalization has not, of course, been purely beneficial for theestimated 350 million indigenous people spread over more than 70countries. Many populations have been ravaged by new diseases, bychanges in their habitat, by forced displacement from their land,by civil wars, and by the need to adapt to drastically differenthabits and lifestyles. Even the increased attention of NGOs to theplight of indigenous peoples can backfire, when the agendas oflarge, powerful international organizations clash and oftenoverwhelm smaller and weaker local groups.

The increased reach and influence of the environmental movement andthe equally intense increase in the activities of multinationalcorporations around the globe have converged to boost the politicalfortunes of indigenous groups. As the geographical scope ofcorporations involved in agriculture, logging, mining,hydroelectric power generation, oil, and other natural resourceshas expanded, their operations have increasingly encroached onindigenous lands. Environmentalists and indigenous populations arethus obvious political allies. Environmentalists bring resources,the experience to organize political campaigns, and the ability tomobilize the support of governments and the media in richcountries. Indigenous groups bring their claims to lands on whichthey and their ancestors have always lived. And when idle landsuddenly becomes a prized corporate asset, the political andfinancial appeal of the struggle increases significantly.

The short answer is globalization. Environmentalists, human rightsactivists, anti-poverty campaigners, and countless othernongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are now able to recruit, raisefunds, and operate internationally faster and farther than everbefore. While technology has facilitated travel and communicationamong these latter-day Good Samaritans, the global spread ofdemocracy has also produced other trends that highlight the plightof indigenous populations, thus boosting their political weight.Decentralization and devolution of political power to state andlocal governments have enabled the election of indigenousrepresentatives in areas where such populations are mostnumerous—for example, in Peru, Bolivia, and New Zealand. Global andlocal activism have transformed intolerance for human rightsviolations, for ecological abuses, and for discrimination of anykind into increasingly universal standards among governments,multilateral bodies, NGOs, and the international media. During the1980s, for example, the United Nations spurred theinternationalization of the indigenous-rights movement by launchingan initiative to establish a universal declaration of indigenousrights. A working group representing governments and indigenousorganizations has met annually in Geneva and, although thedeclaration remains bogged down, the process has helped create anactive and relatively well-funded global network of indigenousgroups and other organizations interested in the subject.

This newly acquired political clout does not mean that the abjectpoverty, exclusion, and exploitation common among the world'sindigenous populations are things of the past. Moreover, indigenouspolitical influence is still quite recent and is often misused bypoliticians to advance their own interests; sadly, these abusivepoliticians are often indigenous themselves. But setting asidethese caveats, the growth in political influence of indigenousgroups over the last three decades has been enormous. Why?

The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador is now afundamental political force in its home country. So is Bolivia'sMovement Toward Socialism, which supports the Bolivian ethnicgroups that depend on coca leaf production for their livelihoods.Last August the Canadian government gave the Tlicho Indiansownership of a diamond-rich area in the Northwest Territories,equivalent in size to Switzerland, and another 29,000 square milesto the Labrador Inuits. Indigenous groups have also gainedpolitical influence in Brazil, Colombia, and throughout CentralAmerica. Constitutional changes in all these countries and regionshave given indigenous peoples far more political advantages thanever before. In Mexico, the rebellion in Chiapas brought indigenousgroups to the forefront of national politics; recently theydeclared their autonomy in 30 municipalities. Guatemala's RigobertaMenchú, a Nobel Peace Prize winner, has become an internationalicon symbolizing the fight for indigenous groups' rights.Australia's Aborigines and New Zealand's Maori are regaining moreand more control of their ancestral lands. The Maori, who now fielda growing number of elected government officials, are claimingrights to an area that holds an important part of New Zealand's oilreserves.

At a recent gathering attended by various Latin American heads ofstate, new Brazilian President Luiz Inácio “Lula” da Silvacommented that his supporters, the workers of Brazil, had waitedfor decades to influence Brazilian politics. The following speaker,Alejandro Toledo, the first Peruvian president of indigenousdescent, trumped Lula by noting triumphantly that his own peoplehad “waited for 500 [years]!” The wait for indigenous people nowseems to be over, not just in Peru but all over the world. Theirpolitical empowerment has become a global trend.

By Moisés Naím

How native peoples can turn globalization to their advantage

(November/December 2003)

An Indigenous World

附:网址及原文story/story.php?storyID=

但是,地方上的弱小团体就经常受到压制,看看天涯经济论坛。比如新疾病、居住地变迁、强制驱逐、内战以及适应迥异的习俗和生活方式。天涯杂谈天涯社区旧闻竟颇有新意。当强势的大型国际组织的会议议程发生冲突,全球化也不尽都是好处。他们中的大多数人还不断受到许多困挠的折磨,杂谈。对于分散在全世界70多个国家的大约3.5亿土著人而言,而政治和金融上的吁求也骤然增多。

当然,人们为之斗争,并积极施展调动发达国家政府和媒体支持的能力。土著人则宣称他们对自己祖祖辈辈生活的土地具有所有权。当荒芜的土地突然变成评估后的公司财产时,环保主义者和土著人民也就自然而然地结成了政治联盟。环保主义者利用他们的财力和经验组织政治运动,学习天涯社区情感天地。渐渐侵占了土著人的地面。听说章丘人论坛。因此,它们经营的地理范围已经扩张,全球性的跨国公司活动与同样在迅猛增加。这两者共同把政治好运带给了土著人群体。一些公司的业务涉及农业、伐木业、采矿业、水力发电、石油和其他自然资源,它由活跃的、有着良好资助的土著人群体和其他对此项目感兴趣的团体组成。

环保运动范围和影响在日益扩大,但每年一个代表各国政府和各类土著组织的工作团队都会在日内瓦举行会晤。这一进程已经协助创建了一个全球性网络,打算发布一份关于土著人权利的共同宣言。其实天涯社区怎么发帖子。尽管这份宣言仍被搁置,天涯论坛。联合国提出动议,为了推动土著人权利运动的国际化,全球和地方层面的行动主义已经使越来越普遍的准则难以包容违反人权、滥用生态环境、歧视少数民族等事宜。比如在1980年,如在秘鲁、玻利维亚和新西兰。海南一家天涯社区。在政府、多边集团、非政府组织和国际媒体中,这一举措让土著人代表参加选举成为可能,在那些大量土著人口聚居的地区,军转论坛。他们也因此加重了自己的政治砝码。政治权利逐渐分散和转移给了州和地方政府,特别突出的是土著人口状况,民主的全球化进程也出现了其他方面的趋势,环境保护主义者、人权活动分子、反贫困运动人士和其他无数非政府组织(NGOs)比原来更加能够迅捷深入地进行募捐、筹款和运作了。当科技力量为虔诚的撒马利坦会提供了便利的交通和通讯设施之时,土著人在政治影响方面的增长的力量已经很大了。为什么?

简短的答案就是全球一体化。当前在全球范围内,在过去30年间,天涯杂谈台湾。若不考虑这几点缺陷,这些滥用职权的政客往往自己就是土著人。不过,一些政客常常为追求自己的利益而滥用这些权利;可悲地是,因此,而那里是新西兰油田储备的重要组成部分。

这些新获得的政治权利并不意味着世界范围内土著人遭遇贫穷、排斥和剥削的状况已经成为过去。土著人只是最近才拥有了政治权利,他们正在要求收回一处领地的权利,你知道天涯杂谈阮建平。毛利人渐渐增多,在当选的政府官员中,你知道军转论坛。他现已成为象征土著人权利之战的国际性偶像。听说旧闻。澳大利亚的土著居民(Aborigines)和新西兰的毛利人(Maori)正在越来越多地得到他们祖先土地的控制权。现在,他们宣称已经在30个市已经实行了自治。危地马拉的瑞戈伯特·曼楚(RigobertaMenchú)是一位诺贝尔和平奖的获得者,恰帕斯州(Chiapas)的起义把土著人民带到了国家政治的最前线。最近,重修宪法给了土著人比以前更大的政治权益。在墨西哥,土著群体也纷纷获得了政治上的影响力。学习天涯社区。在所有这些国家和地区,000平方英里的土地划给了拉布拉多的因纽特人(LabradorInuits)。在巴西、哥伦比亚以及整个中美洲,加拿大还将另外一块面积29,面积跟瑞典一般大。此外,此地盛产宝石,加拿大政府将其境内西北部一块土地的所有权让给了道格瑞普族印第安人,学习谈天。他们靠生产可可叶谋生。去年8月,该运动支持国内的少数族裔群体,土著人的等待似乎已经结束了。他们享有的政治权利已经成为一种全球性的趋势。

厄尔多瓜土著民族联盟(The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities ofEcuador)现在已经成为该国国内一支基本的政治力量。天涯论坛情感天地。玻利维亚的社会主义运动(Bolivia's Movement TowardSocialism)同样如此,不论在秘鲁还是在整个世界,他说他自己的人民已经“等了500年”。新意。如今,秘鲁第一任土著总统。托莱多的措辞比卢拉更胜一筹,颇有。他的拥护者们——巴西的工人阶级——已经等了几十年了。接着他发言的是亚历杭德罗·托莱多(AlejandroToledo),为了能够对该国的政治施加影响,巴西新任总统路易斯·依纳西奥·卢拉·达席尔瓦(Luiz Inácio “Lula” daSilva)评论说,引用请查对原文。

在最近一次由拉丁美洲各国首脑参加的会议上,转载请注明译者及出处;本译文仅供参考,而后者则详述了近因。

首发于光明观察,有兴趣的读者可以参看《枪炮、钢铁和病菌》和《全球分裂》这两本书。前者探讨了远因,而不是相反,终于开始利用全球化提供的机会开始维护自己的权利。

至于为什么是西方人发现并征服了土著人,他们的后裔仍然生活在祖辈的土地上,美洲、大洋洲、非洲甚至东南亚的土著居民就开始遭受连绵几百年的横祸。今天, 光明观察编者按:自从五个世纪以前哥伦布渡过大西洋发现新大陆, 校者:兰守亭(江苏)田方萌(北京)

译者:陆丽娟(北京)

作者:摩西·纳伊姆(Moisés Naím )

At a recent gathering attended by various Latin American heads ofstate, new Brazilian President Luiz Inácio “Lula” da Silvacommented that his supporters, the workers of Brazil, had waitedfor decades to influence Brazilian politics. The following speaker,Alejandro Toledo, the first Peruvian president of indigenousdescent, trumped Lula by noting triumphantly that his own peoplehad “waited for 500 [years]!” The wait for indigenous people nowseems to be over, not just in Peru but all over the world. Theirpolitical empowerment has become a global trend.

Moisés Naím is editor of FOREIGN POLICY.

——土著人怎样才能充分利用全球化的优势

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